Publicaciones

The Drinking Water Directive: ECI's Contribution

The European Copper Institute (ECI) strongly supports measures that help to improve the quality of water intended for human consumption. ECI therefore is in favour of EU-wide standards that help understanding and reduce sources of chemical and/or biological contamination in drinking water systems. This document outlines three main topics to be addressed in this context.

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Effects Based Methods for metals under the Water Framework Directive

Effects Based Methods are a promising new tool, and are considered for use under the Water Framework Directive. Effects Based Methods are a holistic approach which could assess the risks of chemical substances more accurately. Substances are grouped by their mode of action, and specific methods are subsequently developed based on this mode of action to establish a trigger value. This allows for regulating substances with the same mode of action.

This report evaluates the use of 13 Effects Based Methods that might be considered for regulating metals under the Water Framework Directive. Each Effects Based Method was evaluated with respect to three criteria that are critical when considering such methods for regulatory use. These criteria include specificity, sensitivity (to metals and to other classes of toxicants), and the link to higher levels of biological organisation.

The evaluation concludes that that each of the available methods has at least one significant limitation. Therefore, Effects Based Methods are today not well suited for regulating metals under the Water Framework Directive. Additionally, since metals are easily and routinely measured, the added benefit of developing Effects Based Methods for metals is unclear. Instead, it is recommended to further focus on developing bioavailability models for metals mixtures. Such models would be a more practical and cost-effective tool to assess metals under the Water Framework Directive in a holistic way.

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¿Cómo puedo reconocer un producto hecho de Antimicrobial Copper?

Como representante de la industria a nivel mundial, la International Copper Association (ICA), ha creado la marca Antimicrobial Copper y el símbolo Cu+, para asegurar un tratamiento responsable en relación a la implementación sobre el terreno del cobre y sus aleaciones. El uso de la marca Antimicrobial Copper y el símbolo Cu+ indican que un Centro del Cobre, en representación de ICA, ha dado permiso para ello en base a la adhesión a unas estrictas reglas de uso. Estas normas ayudan a la organización a entender la tecnología subyacente y la forma de promocionarla e implementarla en línea con las últimas investigaciones y los requisitos normativos y legislativos existentes.

Antimicrobial Copper es el término que engloba a todas las aleaciones de cobre antimicrobiano aprobadas.

Will commercial grades of copper become hard (like steel) if they are cooled rapidly after heating?

No. Copper is not susceptible to precipitation hardening.

With respect to the MOD Defence Standard 02-879 Part 2 Forgings, what do the terms Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 and Class 4 mean?
  • Class 1 is a forging whose failure would lead to uncontrollable flooding, the total immobilisation of the vessel or serious harm to personnel.(e.g. First Level systems in submarines).
  • Class 2 is a forging whose failure would lead to severe but controllable flooding, the serious disruption of weapon systems, main propulsion machinery, or its attendant auxillaries, including generators
  • Class 3 is a forging whose failure does not constitute an immediate, significant hazard.
  • Class 4 is a forging which is used for forging stock only.
What kind of cleaning do copper alloy cages require?

On average, copper alloy cages must be cleaned approximately once or twice a year, which is significantly fewer than traditional cages, over a service life.

¿Cómo fuciona en la práctica la combinación de tubos de cobre con aletas de aluminio?

Los serpentines con tubos redondos de cobre y aletas de aluminio llevan muchos años siendo una combinación ganadora para los sistemas de aire acondicionado y refrigeración. Los fabricantes aprovechan las ventajas de montaje que les ofrecen estos componentes y a los técnicos les resulta sencillo unir y reparar las tuberías de cobre in situ. Y lo que es aún más importante, esta tecnología ampliamente implantada cuenta con una gran durabilidad probada en la práctica, lo que conlleva unos niveles más elevados de satisfacción del cliente.

¿Por qué se utiliza el cobre y las aleaciones de cobre en la acuñación de monedas?

Desde la antigüedad, el cobre se ha utilizado para fabricar monedas; los romanos ya empleaban con regularidad el cobre para esta aplicación. Las razones para usar cobre son su excelente resistencia a la corrosión, la facilidad de estampación, su buena conductividad eléctrica para las máquinas expendedoras, sus propiedades antimicrobianas y la facilidad de reciclado.

¿Cómo debe ser una buena instalación?

El cobre cumple todos los requisitos exigibles para una buena instalación de agua, gas y calefacción: excelente en sus propiedades mecánicas, impermeable y resistente a la mayoría de agentes externos, universal y apto para cualquier tipo de aplicación, protectora de la salud, reciclable, sostenible..

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"A New Energy Market Design for an Energy Union that Delivers on Demand Side Flexibility and Efficiency First"

ECI & actors from Europe’s energy sector, July 2015

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